Thymosin Alpha-1 is naturally produced and secreted by the thymus gland. It has a number of  immune system regulating actions. It is important in the production of antibodies, it stimulates T cell production, and assists in the development of B cells. Thymosin Alpha -1 has also been shown to enhance natural killer cell activity. Its clinical use in medicine is for its effectiveness with immune suppression in cancer patients, its use in  autoimmune conditions, and its immune support in viral and other infectious diseases.
Thymosin Alpha-1 has been studied quite extensively and was the subject of a  National Library of Medicine production:      
Thymosin Alpha-1 A comprehensive review of the literature. 

read more here :https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747025/

The authors start this review with the statement “Thymosin alpha 1 is a peptide naturally occurring in the thymus that has long been recognized for modifying, enhancing, and restoring  immune function. Thymosin alpha 1 has been utilized in the treatment of immunocompromised states and malignancies, as an enhancer of vaccine response, and as a means of curbing morbidity and mortality in sepsis and numerous infections. “Thymosin alpha 1 plays a fundamental role in the control of inflammation, immunity, and immune  tolerance. As a result of these properties  it has been shown to be an effective therapeutic agent for many conditions associated with immune dysfunction.

Along with showing immune modulating properties, it has also been shown to be an immune restorative agent benefiting those with immune deficiencies. Studies have shown that Thymosin Alpha-1 has helped patients with a variety of cancers.

Thymosin alpha 1 stimulates the adaptive immune response in  a number of ways known to be essential for fighting viral, bacterial, and fungal infections.


It can increase levels of immune related substances in the body such as IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-α, and IFN-γ. Thymosin alpha-1 enhances T cell-mediated immune responses via differentiation of immature T-cells called progenitor cells. It has the ability to elevate the activity of T cell maturation into CD4+/CD8+ cells.

Here is a summary of the conditions for which research shows the effectiveness of  Thymosin Alpha-1.


Against cancer thymosin alpha 1 works via two main mechanisms: Stimulating the immune system and having  a direct anti-proliferative activity on tumor cells. Thymosin alpha-1 has been demonstrated to  restrain tumor growth, shown in study of those with lung and liver tumor metastases. Studies have been published showing  promising results for the use of thymosin alpha-1 in patients with lung cancer, breast cancer, metastatic melanoma, head and neck carcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma.


It is used for the immune suppression present in cancer patients and as and as an adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy. It is used to counter immune depression, and the immune insufficiency found in cancer patients. In combination with chemotherapy or radiation  thymosin Alpha-1 has been shown to improve survival rate in non-small cell lung cancer which has a low  responsiveness to chemotherapy alone.

Thymosin Alpha-1 is used to decrease the toxicity of chemotherapy, improving the quality of life of cancer patients. An increase in the numbers and functions of immune cells by those given Thymosin Alpha-1 may account for the decrease of toxicity from chemotherapy seen in these settings. Also, fewer infections occurred in chemotherapy patients  and they suffered from less neurotoxicity than those patients for whom thymosin Alpha-1 was not administered.

Thymosin Alpha-1 activates natural killer cells and CD8+ T cells, which allows it to kill cells infected by viruses. It stimulates cytokine-mediated immune responses.

Thymosin alpha 1 has a negative effect on both IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, which leads to a decreased inflammatory response and benefits those with acute pancreatitis as well as those with chronic hepatitis.


The use of thymosin alpha 1 in patients with sepsis has shown a significant decrease in mortality due to multiple-organ failure, which is the primary cause of death in sepsis.


Psoriatic arthritis 

Individuals with diseases  that are characterized by deregulation of the immune system such as psoriatic arthritis, have serum levels of thymosin alpha 1 significantly lower than those of healthy individuals. This  finding is consistent with the role of thymosin alpha 1 as a regulator of immunity, tolerance and inflammation.


Bone marrow transplant patients

Thymosin alpha 1 is used to enhance immunity following bone marrow transplantation to resist infections like pseudomonas.

 Mold toxicity

This thymic peptide has the ability to prime dendritic cells and to enhance Th1 and Treg cells so that an antifungal response is generated. Th1 response will activate the production of Th2

cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, IL-18), stimulating phagocytic activity. Therefore, cytotoxic CD4+, CD8+, and T cells and opsonizing antibodies will be produced, generating a protective effect

against fungal pathogens.


Immune deficiency

Treatment with thymosin alpha 1 has been shown to have a restorative effect on patients with a suppressed lymphokine-activated killer cell activity and with immunodeficiency.

Its lack of side effects and safety profile gives us an agent that improves immune system function without causing adverse events.Thymosin alpha 1 is administered to such patients as is a potent modulator of immunity and inflammation.

Oxidative damage, pancreatic lesions and diabetes

Thymosin alpha 1 has protective effects against oxidative damage. By remarkably amplifying the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, thymosin alpha 1

prevents oxidative damage to the liver. These properties of thymosin alpha 1 are also felt to explain the benefits in the treatment of pancreatic lesions

In summary thymosin alpha-1 is a safe, virtually side effect free immune supportive peptide with many clinical uses.

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