The Mitochondrial Derived Peptide for Aging and Age-Related Diseases

MOTS-c is a naturally occurring mitochondrial derived peptide. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that are responsible for the conversion of energy-storing molecules, such as ATP, for optimum cellular functioning and metabolism. The mitochondria are therefore involved in virtually all body functions. 

Aging is characterized by gradual loss of metabolic balance, muscle loss and generally diminished physical capabilities. It is a lifelong process that leads to a breakdown of biological functions and an incapacity to respond to metabolic stress. Improved mitochondrial fitness and physical capacity can aid healthy aging. Thus, MOTS-C is a true anti-aging peptide.

Since MOTS-c is intimately involved in energy production, it can be used clinically for the wide variety of health conditions in which fatigue is a significant symptom.

 Since MOTS-C diminishes with advancing age, it is hypothesized that its administration therapeutically can provide help with `many age- related conditions. Indeed, research has shown that enhancing the body’s levels of MOTS-C may have beneficial effects on many conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, obesity and dementia-Alzheimer’s disease.

The biological effects of MOTS-c, are due to its signaling effects regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics and metabolism. MOTS-C is an important regulator for energy balance and the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids and effects glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity.

MOTS-c triggers the activation of AMPK, a key regulator of cellular metabolism. In the nucleus, MOTS-c regulates a wide range of genes in response to metabolic dysfunction, including those containing antioxidant response elements.

Aging leads to senescence-the breakdown of biological functions and increasing incapacity to respond to metabolic stressors. Improved mitochondrial functioning via administration of MOTS-c may enhance physical capacity and aid healthy aging.

While the process of aging is linked to several different factors, it is clear that advancing age itself is the biggest risk factor for chronic diseases and functional impairments that limit life expectancy. MOTS-c levels in individuals in their seventies is approximately 20% lower than for those in their twenties. 

MOTS-c exists in metabolic pathways along with age-modifiers such as NAD+, another metabolic cofactor which is also a critical modulator of cell signaling. Both of these diminish with age. It is thus felt that maintaining NAD+ levels in conjunction with maintaining MOTS-c levels could postpone age-related disorders and possibly increase longevity.

Effects on Diabetes. The complications of diabetes are a leading cause of death in the U.S. and throughout the world. Oxidative stress is a critical factor in the development, progression, and consequences of diabetes. MOTS-c might mitigate against this oxidative stress. Study have revealed that MOTS-c administration enhances insulin sensitivity and improves blood glucose levels and improves insulin sensitivity.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) causes insulin insufficiency due to tissue resistance. Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to T2D and its complications. In a study of 225 normal and pre-diabetic patients, MOTS-c levels were considerably lower in T2D than in non-diabetics. MOTS-c has a negative correlation with age, HbA1c, and glucose.

Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular disease refers to functional and structural abnormalities of the coronary vessels, a leading cause of death worldwide, particularly affecting elderly populations.

Endothelial cells provide the inner lining of blood vessels. Endothelial Dysfunction is a hallmark of CVD, and is characterized by inflammation and a reduced capacity for vasodilation, the expansion of a blood vessel which allows for optimum blood flow. Research has shown a correlation between reduced MOTS-c levels and coronary endothelial dysfunction in patients who were studied.

Vascular calcification (VC) is the abnormal deposition of calcium crystal deposits in arterial walls. It complicates the progression of chronic kidney disease, cardiac valve disease, and atherosclerosis . It has been shown experimentally that  MOTS-c therapy may protect against  vascular calcification, which is consistent with the beneficial effect of MOTS-c against both oxidative stress and development of heart muscle contractile dysfunction. MOTS-c may serve as an inhibitor of vascular calcification by activating the AMPK signaling pathway. An important area of ongoing research is to identify non-invasive blood-based biomarkers for the early diagnosis and prognosis of many diseases. Studies support the notion that MOTS-c could be an early predictor of coronary atherosclerosis and a possible marker cardiometabolic dysfunction.



Post-Menopausal Disorders

Postmenopausal women have lower ovarian hormone production and a higher risk of metabolic dysfunction, including reduced energy expenditure, obesity, and impaired insulin secretion and sensitivity.

In obesity, fat excess impairs adipose function and increases fatty acids and systemic inflammation. Administration of MOTS-c activated AMPK might mitigate against fat deposition, restore energy, and improve insulin sensitivity  


Low bone mass and altered bone microarchitecture leads to excess risk of fractures in those with osteoporosis. The imbalance between synthesis and absorption of bone related minerals and Type I collagen, is crucial in Osteoporosis. Type I collagen makes up over 80% of bone organic matter. In type I collagen synthesis and metabolism, TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β) stimulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and immigration. Cells treated with MOTS-c show enhancement of these mechanisms, and the bone forming cells osteoblasts to produce more type I collagen as a result. Bone mesenchymal stem cells also have their development enhanced via treatment with MOTS-c.

Postmenopausal osteoporosis causes bone resorption due to estrogen deprivation. It appears that MOTS-c is a promising osteoporosis treatment since it enhances bone density, and cell quantity via a variety of mechanisms.


Alzheimer’s Disease

Aging is a major risk factor associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Damaged mitochondria produce reactive free radicals, which cause oxidative stress, cell death and cognitive impairments in AD.

Research has shown that MOTS-c therapy increased the formation of object and location recognition memories by activating AMPK, and acting to decrease proinflammatory cytokine production.

MOTS-c in Relation to Muscle Homeostasis and Physical Activity

Mitochondria supply more energy to the muscles during exercise by communicating exercise-induced signals to other organs. MOTS-c administration and exercise training have an additive effect. MOTS-c treatment activates skeletal muscle AMPK, a well-known exercise regulator. Exercise is known to reduce the incidence of Type 2 diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease. It appears that MOTS-c therapy and regular aerobic exercise may reduce diabetic heart dysfunction through similar mechanisms.

With advancing age there is an accumulation of DNA mutations, and resultant metabolic dysfunction, which are both inherent involved in the aging process. These mitochondrial genetic changes may contribute to the age-dependent decrease in MOTS-c levels.

Given that aging is associated with a decline of mitochondrial functions along with the development of aging-related diseases, and given that the tissue and circulating levels of MOTS-c fall with age, it is compelling to hypothesize that declining MDP levels are also related to age-related metabolic deterioration. This contributes to the scientific hypothesis that administration of MOTS-c may contribute mitochondrial homeostasis, and impart an anti-aging effect on those treated.

MOTS-c and other age-modifiers such as NAD+ share metabolic pathways. NAD+ also declines with age. Increasing its levels can also improve age-related disorders. This suggests that co-administration of these age modifiers may ad further clinical benefit. More clinical research is needed to refine therapeutic approaches based on the naturally produced peptides which decline with age.

Autoimmune conditions

For unkown reasons autoimmune conditions have been on the rise. And they affect many organs systems . There are many peptides used in this arena. One off them Thymosin Alpha-1 is another example of a very well studied and researched peptide in use around the world approved in 35 other countries. This and other peptides can be used to help with a broad range of Autoimmune conditions:
Thyroid- Grave’s Disease, Hashimoto’s
Bones/Joints- Rheumatoid arthritis, Lupus, Psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis
Gastrointestinal System- Crohn’s disease, Ulcerative Colitis
Skin-Psoriasis, vitiligo
Brain/ Nervous system- Multiple sclerosis, B Gullian barre

Peptides used: Thymosin Apha 1, Thymosin Beta 4,  BPC-157, KPV

Chronic infections- Lyme Disease, Epstein Barr virus, CMV, others

The broad action of peptides includes countering chronic infections whether they be from viruses, spirochetes, or bacteria. They can be used as an adjunct to treatments such as high dose IV Vitamin C/ mineral infusions, or for those taking antibiotics. This area of treatment also takes advantage of very well researched substances such as Thymosin Alpha-1 that are currently approved for medical treatment by the FDA’s of Europe and many other countries around the world.

Peptides used: Thymosin Alpha 1, BPC-157

Dementia and other degenerative neurologic conditions such as Multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s Disease .

The scourge of dementia which plagues the elderly population is one of the great health care challenges of the 21st century.

Some of the peptides available for treatment such as Cerbrolysin have also been the subject of extensive research and have been approved by many FDA type governmental regulatory bodies in many places around the world and have been successfully used for years.

Other neurologic disorders such as those listed above have in common the difficult to treat problem of neurodegeneration. Similar to their effectives in dementia, peptides have been used safely, as a part of physician treatment programs for these conditions in many areas of the world.

Peptides used: Cerebrolysin, Semax, Selank, FGL (L), NMN

Sleep, Libido, Fibromyalgia, others

Since peptides are made up of amino acids, which are the building blocks of the body’s proteins and are “signaling” substances in the human body, their application is very broad and so there are many peptide treatments for many conditions
Peptides for ED (erectile dysfunction), and libido
Peptides for Sleep: DSIP,   Melaton II,  PT 141, CJC, Ipamorelin
Peptides for Fibromyalgia

Cancer- peptide therapy has been approved by the FDA in adjutant care for Cancer patients . important note *

DISCLAIMER – our office does not offer primary cancer treatment, as Dr. Sobo is not a trained oncologist. Support for cancer patients is provided as an adjunct to the care they may be receiving from a specialist in the field of cancer treatment.

Peptides used: Thymosin Alpha 1

Anti-Aging Medicine

The term “anti-aging means different things to different health professionals and their patients, and to the public at large. We see Anti- Aging Medicine as achieving a comparatively lower “biological age” in comparison at whatever “chronologic age” person may be at. It obvious that two people who are chronologically 60 years old may appear to be quite different. On the outside one’s skin and muscle tone may seem “younger” than another person of the same calendar age. Internally one may have a circulatory system in better shape, biologically younger than another person of the same age with degenerative circulatory disease. There are many factors involved in “biological age”. Peptides may be a factor that allows one or more body systems to relatively speaking, “beat the clock” and enhance a person’s health to the extent that they seem at a biologically younger age than they otherwise might be at whatever calendar age they are at any given time.

Peptides used: Epithalon, MOTS-c, FGL (L), NMN

Dr Sobo is a member of A4M – The American Academy of Anti- Aging Medicine.
He is also a pioneer member of the new medical organization , the Clinical Peptide Society. If you have any questions, please call 1-203-348-8805

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